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The term nootropics buy modafinil online is proposed to designate means that exert a specific activating influence on the integrative functions of the brain, stimulate learning, improve memory and mental activity, increase brain resistance to aggressive influences, hypoxia that enhance cortico-subcortical connections. Nootropics buy provigil online do not exert a pronounced psychostimulating or sedative effect, they do not cause specific changes in the bioelectrical activity of the brain buy modalert online. At the same time, they to some extent stimulate the transmission of excitation in the central neurons, facilitate the transfer of information between the cerebral hemispheres buy modafinil online over the counter, improve the energy processes and blood supply of the brain, increase its resistance to hypoxia modafinil for sale online pharmacy. The most important manifestation of their action is the activation of intellectual and mnestic functions, antihypoxic activity. To improve physical performance, nootropics are effective only in combination with actoprotectors and psychostimulants or in weakened and asthenic persons buy modiodal.
The appearance of the term nootropics (from the Greek noos - thinking, reason, tropos - aspiration, affinity) is associated with the discovery of a new type of pharmacological action of the drug on the central nervous system.
Nootropics (synonyms: nootropics, nootropics, neurometabolic stimulants, neurodynamic, neuroregulatory, neurometabolic, eutotrophic, metabolic cerebroprotectors) are substances that exert specific influence on the higher integrative functions of the brain, stimulate learning and memory, improve mental activity, increase brain resistance to damaging Factors that improve cortical-subcortical connections. A similar effect was first observed in pyracetam buy modafinil online without prescription, synthesized in 1963 by the Belgian pharmacologists buy provigil online K. Giurgea and V. Skondia, who were initially studied as an antikinetic agent. In 1972, K. Giurgea with the help of the staff found that after receiving piracetamam the learning processes are facilitated, memory is improved buy modalert 200 mg. Even earlier, since the 1960s, y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was used to improve mnemonic functions.
In 1972, K. Giurgea proposed the term nootropics to refer to a class of drugs that improve the higher functions of the brain and have no side effects inherent in psychomotor stimulants buy modafinil online otc.
More than 10 original nootropic preparations of the pyrrolidine series, currently in the phase of clinical trials or already registered in a number of countries, have now been synthesized; Among them oxyracetam, aniracetam, etiracetam, pramiracetam, dupracetam, rolziratsetam, cebrasetam, nefiracetam, isazetam, detiracetam. These old nootropics buy modafinil online cheap price have received the general name of ratsetam.
In addition, other families of nootropic drugs have been synthesized, including cholinergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, and peptidergic. Signs of nootropic activity in the pharmacodynamics of glutamic acid, memantine and levocarnitine have been established. The nootropic effect of a number of neuropeptides and their synthetic analogues (ACTH and its fragments, somatostatin, vasopressin, oxytocin, tyroliberin, melanostatin, cholecystokinin, neuropeptide Y, substance P, angiotensin II, cholecystokinin-8, peptide analogues of pyracetamol, etc.) is shown in the experiment.
In general, the 90-ies marked a high rate of research activities related to the search and study of new nootropics. Until now, the search for a basic hypothesis of the action of nootropics is continuing, capable of integrating already known aspects of the mechanism of action of nootropic drugs buy modafinil online over the counter and determining their future fate. At the moment absolutely new nootropics are synthesized, which are much more effective and have fewer side effects.
It is important to search for new drugs that have greater pharmacological activity and selectively affect the integrative functions of the brain, improving the patient's psychopathological state, mental activity and orientation in everyday life.
In the conditions of loads that athletes experience during the competition and training with a depleted functional resources, nootropics can be used for prevention and correction. Some of them, possessing a cerebroprotective metabolic effect buy provigil online without prescription, are used individually at certain periods and stages of training athletes buy modalert.
According to the WHO, it is recommended that the group of nootropic drugs include medicines that can exert a direct activating influence on the learning processes, improve memory and mental activity, and also increase brain resistance to aggressive influences.
The general resultant actions for this group of drugs cheap modafinil buy over the counter are:
The presence of pronounced anabolic action and indirect positive influence on physical working capacity makes it expedient to use certain drugs from the group of nootropics (piracetam, etiracetam, aminalon, sodium oxybutyrate, phenibut) in pharmacological support schemes for sports activities.
Metabolic mechanisms of action of new nootropics are associated with such effects:
In addition, cerebrovazoactive drugs buy modafinil online also have a special mechanism of vasodilator action. Nimodipine, cinnarizine block calcium channels L-type, mainly in the smooth muscles of the cerebral vessels. Pentoxifylline blocks phosphodiesterase, promotes cAMP accumulation, reduces intracellular calcium content, and also blocks adenosine receptors. Vinpocetine and oxybrel block sodium channels, phospho-diestease, reduce the degradation of GAM K. Nicergoline has a-adrenoblocking effect on cerebral vessels.
Psycho-organic syndromes (vascular, traumatic, infectious, intoxication, somatic genesis); Acute vascular pathology; Chronic alcoholism; epilepsy; Chronic, therapeutic, resistant depressive conditions; Neurotic reactive somatogenic states; schizophrenia; Correction of decreased learning in children and adults order modafinil over the counter.
Are more often observed from the side of the central nervous system buy modafinil online and the psyche (increased excitability, nervousness or weakness, drowsiness, dizziness, tremor, anxiety, sleep disturbance), and also from the digestive canal (nausea, vomiting, indigestion).
There are more often in elderly people. For phenibut, aminalone provigil online, hypotension is also possible, for phenybut (rarely) manifestation of hepato-, nephrotoxicity, eosinophilia, for Huato boluses is an increase in the intensity of pain syndrome in patients with headaches during the first 2-3 weeks of therapy, a feeling of heat and hyperemia Face after taking the drug, rashes on the face and body by the type of urticaria.
The sports doctor and trainer should remember that phenotrope has been included in class S6 of the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods (2008) (called carphedon), so its use during competitions is prohibited.
Some nootropic drugs are interchangeable; So, with craniocerebral trauma appoint all drugs, except for Phenibutum, pan-togam, picamilon; For prevention of motion sickness - picamilon, phenibut; With a decrease in concentration of attention, all drugs are effective. In cerebrovascular disorders, pentoxifylline, vinpocetine, oxybral, nicergoline, cinnarizine, nimodipine are used, with rehabilitation after the loadings - piracetam, aminalon, picamilon, pantogam.
Thus, nootropics in sports medicine modvigil otc can be attributed to a certain extent to metabolite neuroprotectors, in piracetam, the presence of cardioprotective action is also noted, which is enhanced when taken with other cardioprotectors.
Modafinil online pharmacy is a psychostimulant. It was developed where to buy modafinil online without doctor prescription in the late 80s of the last century by the American manufacturer of drugs Cephalon for the treatment of narcolepsy - a disease in which people suddenly fall asleep during the day. Approximately 0.02-0.03% of the population suffers from narcolepsy. Modafinil buy cheap is used in approximately 20 countries.
Modafinil is also used to treat other conditions other than narcolepsy, which also cause daytime sleepiness. In addition, sometimes it is used to treat disorders with memory and attention deficit, Alzheimer's disease and depression.
By classification, cheap modafinil refers to doping drugs. Its effect on sports results has not been studied, however, based on the effects of this drug, it is assumed that it improves stamina and speed. It is known that in bodybuilding it is used to reduce the fat content due to the effect of suppressing appetite.
The mechanism of action of modafinil differs from the mechanism of action of amphetamine and ephedrine or other similar psychostimulants. Modafinil buy otc also does not form in the human body from derivatives of amphetamine or ephedrine. Adafinil, an older drug than modafinil, is a drug similar to modafinil in structure and effects.
Modafinil affects various parts of the brain. Probably the most important effect is an increase in the speed of mental reactions. This effect refers to the lower part of the intermediate brain, the hypothalamus, where the activation of the nerve pathways in which orexin / hypocretin action plays an important role in the regulation of sleep-wakefulness as mediators occurs.
In addition, it activates the sympathetic alpha-1 receptors of the central nervous system, increases the activity of stimulation of glutamine and histamine transmitters, and also enhances the effects of serotonin in the cerebral cortex where to best place to buy modafinil online.
In addition, it reduces the activity of those inhibitory nerve cells in which gamma-aminobutyric acid acts as a transmitter. Smart drugs modafinil buy online does not lead to excitation of the dopamine system in the central nervous system, which is the most important effect of amphetamines.
Modafinil online pharmacy can lead to the effect of pleasure and addiction, but to a much lesser extent than amphetamines. It is well tolerated in therapeutic doses, however, side effects may include insomnia, headaches, nervousness, agitation, aggressiveness, increased blood pressure and symptoms from the heart.
Partially blocked by the reverse capture of dopamine, norepinephrine and glutamate, their production is enhanced. Who does not know these substances, read the relevant articles. Action in the style of drugs like cocaine / amphetamine. In the short term, the combination of generation and blockage of the re-uptake of these catecholamines suggests a frenzied drive, stimulation, tunnel vision when you easily concentrate on any thing, even when everything is moving around / jumping / blinking. In simple terms, such a person is difficult to distract, it is collected and concentrated. However, you can become paranoid and concentrate.
Increases the level of histamine. No sleep. There are very few people who know that most allergy medicines, rashes are antihistamines. Histamine develops, strengthens the body's reaction to the stimulus, it seems to say: You should have eaten it or sniffed it - here's a rash on your hands and a couple of pimples on your back where to buy modafinil online over the counter. Your great-grandfather from this garbage nearly died, this information was encoded in a special gene, so that you - a fool, did not repeat mistakes. Nothing personal!. Antihistamines, as the name suggests, suppresses it. And Modafinil, on the contrary, strengthens its development, making the body more sensitive and irritable. And an elevated level of histamine completely destroys all drowsiness. Therefore, it is believed that modafinil purchase without prescription primarily for narcoleptics buy modafinil online no prescription, who constantly want to sleep.
IQ increase. And here is a reference. This is one of those effects that are underdeveloped. IQ is associated with Acetylcholine, but on acetylcholine generic modafinil for sale does not work or almost does not work. Perhaps there is a substance that changes under the current drug, causing an indirect improvement in the functioning of the brain buy modafinil online, its cognitive functions. And it's hard to say what it can be like in 30-40 years. Especially strongly IQ increases in people with a low brain development rate.
Improve short-term memory. On this point, most likely, the truth lies in the influence of the dopaminergic system. After all, dopamine and its receptors are responsible for the so-called focus, concentration, mindfulness.
Scientists studied how the drug for the mind acted when smart students had to respond accurately and in a timely manner. The conclusions were completely opposite to the results that the scientists expected to receive. In a randomized, double-blind study, best modafinil without prescription slowed the response when passing the test. The study involved 32 students with a drug for the mind modafinil purchase and 32 with a placebo. All participants were given the famous neuropsychological buy modafinil online Heiling task, which had to be answered quickly and accurately. It turned out that the drug for the mind slowed down the reaction time, violating the students' ability to react quickly.
It has always been thought that modafinil can improve mental performance. Now scientists explain that, perhaps, the delay in the ability to react is quickly related to the fact that the drug improves cognitive functions, forcing people to be less impulsive. The study showed that when a task requires instant reactions, the drug for the mind only prolongs the reaction time without improving cognitive functions. A previous randomized controlled trial showed that so-called medications for the mind especially violate a participant's ability to find creative answers to questions.
For whom is the modafinil without prescription medication useful? When scientists drew attention to the participants' ability to solve the problem creatively, they found an amazing fact. People inclined to creativity improved their abilities with the help of a drug for the mind, and in creative persons this ability was violated after the use of the drug. Thus, this study confirms that psychostimulants improve the abilities of people with lower abilities, but these drugs impair the ability of healthy people whose cognitive functions are at an optimal level. It seems that modafinil purchase is not useful for healthy people buy modafinil online, because this drug for the mind can even worsen their ability to react and can stifle their non-standard thinking. At the same time, this drug can be useful for people who have a deficit of creativity.
What can make us smarter? Scientists have studied the effects of meditation with provigil for sale over the counter, exercise and diet on brain health. They also studied with electroencephalography how attentiveness can affect the healthy brain of a teenager. It turned out that healthy smart people (whose brains function at the optimal level) are really difficult to improve their cognitive abilities. However, the teenager's brain is still in development. Its cognitive properties can be improved through positive interaction, healthy eating or awareness.
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